During the ongoing pandemic and economic recovery, the CRR is exploring how COVID-19 may impact retirement security from all angles. Our current resources are below.

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Economic and Health Data

U.S. Deaths Involving COVID-19 Reported to the CDC 
Weekly Initial Unemployment Insurance Claims 
Change in Unemployment Rate in Recent Recessions, by Gender and Age 
Unemployment Rate, January 1970 – October 2022 
401(k) Match Suspensions and Reinstatements Since March 2020 

* Download all economic and health data

Other Data Resources

Harvard’s Opportunity Insights Institute: Track the Recovery
USC Survey Data: Understanding Coronavirus in America

COVID-19 Legislation

American Rescue Plan Act of 2021 (enacted 3/11/21)
Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2021 (enacted 12/27/20)
Paycheck Protection Program and Health Care Enhancement Act (enacted 4/24/20)
Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (enacted 3/27/20)
Families First Coronavirus Response Act (enacted 3/18/20)
Coronavirus Preparedness and Response Supplemental Appropriations Act (enacted 3/6/20)


Will Older Individuals Avoid Nursing Homes After the Pandemic?
Social Security Claiming: COVID-19 vs. Great Recession
Will Survivors of the First Year of the Pandemic Have Lower Mortality?
Has COVID Affected Pensions for Workers without Social Security?
How Has COVID-19 Affected Older Workers’ Labor Force Participation?
Did the Stimulus Checks Help People with Unexpected Expenses?
How Have Older Workers Fared During the COVID-19 Recession?
COVID-19 Is Not a Retirement Story
2020 Public Plan Investment Update and COVID-19 Market Volatility
The Status of Local Government Pension Plans in the Midst of COVID-19
How Widespread Unemployment Might Affect Retirement Security
How Exposed Are Retirement Savings to Market Risk?
Can Older Workers Work from Home?
2020 Update: Market Decline Worsens the Outlook for Public Plans

Working Papers

Did the Stimulus Checks Improve Household Balance Sheets?
How Does COVID-Induced Early Retirement Compare to the Great Recession?
Will Survivors of the First Year of the COVID-19 Pandemic Have Lower Mortality?
How Has COVID-19 Affected the Labor Force Participation of Older Workers?
How Will COVID-19 Affect Pensions for Noncovered Workers?
Will Survivors of the First Year of the COVID-19 Pandemic Have Lower Mortality?


Squared Away by CRR Blogger Kim Blanton

COVID’s Small Impact on Future Mortality (12/1/22)
Nursing Home Staffs’ Vax Rates by State (3/3/22)
2 Options in an Emergency: Savings or Family (1/13/22)
Low-income Spend Tax Credit on Food, Rent (10/26/21)
Caregivers Lament Elderly’s COVID Isolation (10/14/21)
ACA Insurance in the Time of COVID-19 (10/5/21)
Older Americans Felt Lonely in Pandemic (8/24/21)
Working from Home: the Next Inequity (5/27/21)
Video: Grandparents as Substitute Parents (3/16/21)
Billionaires Got Much Richer in Pandemic (2/11/21)

MarketWatch by CRR Director Alicia H. Munnell

How Did COVID-19 Impact Social Security Claiming Compared to the Great Recession? (10/25/22)
Have We Undercounted or Overcounted COVID-19 Deaths? (1/31/22)
How to Explain the Increased Percentage of Retired People? (11/23/21)
How Did Stimulus Checks Affect Household Finances? (8/17/21)
To What Extent will Working from Home Continue? (5/3/21)
Has COVID-19 Pushed More People Into Retirement? (4/20/21)
COVID $1.9 Trillion Package Temporarily Expands Earned-Income Tax Credit (3/30/21)
Critics Leap on Aid to Multiemployer Pension Plans (3/23/21)
Has COVID-19 Really Affected Life Expectancy? (3/1/21)
Few 401(k) Participants Changed Portfolio Allocation When Market Tanked (2/23/21)

CRR in the News

Morningstar: “How Have Older Workers Fared in the Pandemic-Induced Downturn?” (6/2/21)
The New York Times: “7 Steps to Take Now to Catch Up on Retirement Savings” (5/8/21)
CNBC: “Why Some Older Workers Fared Worse During COVID-19 Than the Great Recession” (5/3/21)
State Street: “Could COVID-19 Change How and Where Americans Retire?” (4/28/21)
MarketWatch: “The New Stimulus Bill Will Help Shore Up Some Shaky Pension Plans” (3/15/21)
The Boston Globe: “COVID Rescue Package Gives Failing Pension Plans a $86 Billion Bailout” (3/13/21)
The Wall Street Journal: “More Americans Face Retirement Insecurity” (1/19/21)
The New York Times: “Workers Tap Retirement Savings as a Last Resort” (12/18/20)
Marketplace: “Few people are tapping 401(k)s, even without withdrawal penalties” (10/12/20)
CNBC: “Older Workers are Struggling to Find Jobs Amid the Coronavirus Pandemic” (10/2/20)

CRR Research on the 2008-2009 Recession

The Effects of the Great Recession on the Retirement Security of Older Workers
Are Retirement Savings Too Exposed to Market Risk?
The Financial Crisis and Private Defined Benefit Plans
The Financial Crisis and State/Local Defined Benefit Plans
Recessions and Older Workers
The National Retirement Risk Index: After The Crash
Why Did Some Employers Suspend Their 401(k) Match?
401(k) Plans in 2010: An Update from the SCF
Who Claimed Social Security Early Due to the Great Recession?

From Our Affiliates

Brookings Institution: “Resources on Coronavirus [COVID-19]”
Mathematica: “COVID-19 Curated Data, Modeling, and Policy Resources”
Urban Institute: “COVID-19: Policies to Protect People and Communities”


This page was last updated on December 1, 2022.